Meißenheim was first mentioned in a document in 1267. Initially, the place belonged to the Lords of Geroldseck as a fief of the diocese of Strasbourg, and then passed to the Lords of Hattstadt in the 14th century. In 1464 the Strasbourg citizen Bernhard Wurmser bought the village. It remained in the possession of his family until 1805 and then came to the Grand Duchy of Baden as part of the mediatization due to the main conclusion of the extraordinary empire deputation.
Meißenheim used to belong to the Lahr district, with which it merged in 1973 in the new Ortenau district. On January 1st, 1972, the community of Kurzell was incorporated into Meißenheim.